Custom Renderers

The core Crank module provides an abstract Renderer class which can be extended to produce more than just DOM nodes or HTML strings, allowing you to target alternative environments such as WebGL libraries like Three.js or Pixi.js, terminals, smartphones or smart TVs. This guide provides an overview of the concepts and internal methods which you will need to know when implementing a custom renderer yourself. Alternatively, you can read through the DOM and HTML renderer implementations to learn by example.

Warning: The custom renderer API is currently unstable both because of its performance-sensitive nature and because the exact complications of rendering to a wide variety of environments are not yet fully known. If you maintain a Crank renderer, you will have to deal with breaking changes as Crank is optimized and as new renderer requirements are discovered.

The Lifecycle of an Element

Crank does not provide lifecycle methods or hooks as part of its public interface, instead opting to rely on the natural lifecycle of generator functions. However, we use common lifecycle terms like mounting, updating, unmounting and committing internally to conceptualize the process of rendering.

Rendering is essentially a depth-first walk of an element tree, where we recursively compare new elements to what was previously rendered. When elements are new to the tree, we mount the element, when elements have been seen before, we update the element, and when elements no longer exist in the tree, they are unmounted.

Committing is the part of the rendering process where we actually perform the operations which create, mutate and dispose of nodes. Elements are committed in a post-order traversal of the tree, meaning that by the time a specific element is committed, all of its children will already have been committed as well. This is done so that rendering side-effects happen all at once, even if there are async components in the tree, leading to a more consistent and performant user experience. By contrast, components can be thought of as executing in a pre-order traversal of the tree, because the only way to get the children of a component element is to execute the component.

Renderer Type Parameters

Note: Renderer development is considerably more abstract than application development, and using the TypeScript types provided by Crank can make this process much easier to understand. Therefore, this guide both assumes familiarity with TypeScript and uses TypeScript syntax in its examples.

The Renderer class takes four type parameters which describe the types of values as they flow in and out of the custom renderer methods.

class Renderer<
  TScope = unknown,
  TRoot = TNode,
  TResult = ElementValue<TNode>


TNode is the most important type: it is the type of the node associated with each host element. For instance, for the basic DOM renderer, TNode is the DOM Node interface.


TScope is the type of the scope, a renderer-specific concept for arbitrary data which is passed down the tree between host elements. Scopes are useful for passing contextual information down the tree to be used when nodes are created; for instance, the DOM renderer uses the scope to pass down information about whether we’re currently rendering in an SVG element.


TRoot is the type of the root node. This is the type of the second parameter passed to the Renderer.render method, and the root prop passed to Portal elements. It is usually the same type as TNode but can vary according to renderer requirements.


TResult describes the type of values made visible to renderer consumers. Any time Crank exposes an internal node, for instance, via the crank-ref callback, or as the result of yield expressions in generator components, the renderer can intercept this access and provide something other than the internal nodes, allowing renderers to hide implementation details and provide results which make more sense for a specific environment.

For example, the HTML string renderer has an internal node representation, but converts these nodes to strings before they’re exposed to consumers. This is because the internal nodes must be a referentially unique object which is mutated during rendering, while JavaScript strings are referentially transparent and immutable. Therefore, the TResult type of the HTML renderer is string.


The following is a description of the signatures of internal renderer methods and when they’re executed. When creating a custom renderer, you are expected to override these methods via inheritance.


  el: Element<string | symbol>, scope: TScope
): TNode;

The create method is called for each host element the first time the element is committed. This method is passed the current host element and scope, and should return the node which will be associated with the host element. This node will remain constant for an element for as long as the element is rendered.

By default, this method will throw a Not Implemented error, so custom renderers should always implement this method.

read(value: Array<TNode | string> | TNode | string | undefined): TResult;

The renderer exposes rendered values in the following places:

When an element or elements are read in this way, we call the read method to give renderers a final chance to manipulate what is exposed, so as to hide internal implementation details and return something which makes sense for the target environment. The parameter passed to the read method can be a node, a string, an array of nodes and strings, or undefined. The return value is what is actually exposed.

This method is optional. By default, read is an identity function which returns the value passed in.


patch(el: Element<string | symbol>, node: TNode): unknown;

The patch method is called for each host element whenever it is committed. This method is passed the current host element and its related node, and its return value is ignored. This method is usually where you would mutate the internal node according to the props of the host element.

Implementation of this method is optional for renderers.


  el: Element<string | symbol>,
  parent: TNode | TRoot,
  children: Array<TNode | string>,
): unknown;

The arrange method is called whenever an element’s children have changed. It is called with the current host element, the host element’s related node, and the rendered values of all the element’s descendants as an array. In addition to when a host element commits, the arrange method may also be called when a child refreshes or otherwise causes a host element’s rendered children to change. Because the arrange method is called for every root/portal element, the parent can be of type TRoot as well as TNode.

This method is where the magic happens, and is where you connect the nodes of your target environment into an internal tree.


scope(el: Element<string | symbol>, scope: TScope | undefined): TScope;

The scope method is called for each host or portal element as elements are mounted or updated. Unlike the other custom renderer methods, the scope method is called during the pre-order traversal of the tree, much as components are. The scope method is passed the current host element and scope as parameters, and the return value becomes the scope argument passed to the create and scope method calls for descendant host elements.

By default, the scope method returns undefined, meaning the scope will be undefined throughout your application.


escape(text: string, scope: TScope): string;

The escape method is called whenever a string is encountered in the element tree. It is mainly useful when creating string-based renderers like an HTML or XML renderer, because most rendering targets like the DOM provide text node interfaces which sanitize inputs by default.

One important detail is that escape should not return text nodes or anything besides a string. We defer this step to the arrange method because this allows the renderer to normalize a host element’s children by concatenating adjacent strings.

By default, the escape method returns the string which was passed in.


parse(text: string, scope: TScope): TNode | string;

When the renderer encounters a Raw element whose value prop is a string, it calls the parse method with that string and the current scope. The return value should be the parsed node, or it can be a string as well, in which case parse will be handled like a string child by parents.

By default, the parse method returns the string which was passed in.


dispose(el: Element<string | symbol>, node: TNode): unknown

The dispose method is called whenever a host element is unmounted. It is called with the host element and its related node. You can use this method to manually release a node or clean up event listeners for garbage collection purposes.

This method is optional and its return value is ignored.


complete(root: TRoot): unknown;

The complete method is called at the end of every render execution, when all elements have been committed and all other renderer methods have been called. It is useful, for instance, if your rendering target needs some final code to execute before any mutations take effect.

This method is optional and its return value is ignored.